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Demystifying sleep & other adventures

FELLOW FILES, VOL. 1: DR. ROGER BROUGHTON, FRCPC

By: Royal College Staff Writer


This article is Vol. 1 in a new series highlighting the professional lives and careers of Fellows. From lifetime achievements to cool ventures to hidden talents to career-defining moments, we want to tell your stories! Email us your ideas: communications@royalcollege.ca.


“I started in ’62, so that’s 54-plus years — half a century!”

Roger Broughton, MD, PhD, FRCPC, almost seems surprised by his own admission.

Dr. Roger Broughton
Dr. Roger Broughton

He sits across from me at a coffee shop, smartly dressed in a dark blue suit and crisp, white-collared shirt. He is surprisingly spry, belying his 81 years.

We’re here to talk about his career — one in which he’s played a seminal role in the development and advancement of sleep research and sleep medicine both in Canada and internationally.

Among his many contributions,

  • a landmark research paper (hint: sleepwalking is actually not dreams-lived-out),
  • expert testimony in a milestone forensic medicine case (legal quandary: are you guilty of murder if you were asleep when you committed the act?);
  • the distinction of being the founding president of the Canadian Sleep Society (once uncertain of its future, the society just celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2016).

“Because of luck and some critical, early-career decisions, I am widely considered one of the pioneers of sleep medicine... and that’s nice,” he said, smiling.

Science runs in the family

Roger’s father was a researcher of some renown. He headed up a National Research Council laboratory in Ottawa and was a world expert on testing oils and lubricants, particularly how they perform in cold weather. Growing up, Roger was exposed very early on to the scientific process; and often, to great minds in research.

“My father used to invite eminent researchers for supper. I always thought ‘Oh wow. That must be a neat life.’ I liked the idea of doing research. The issue arose for me of whether I wanted to do only research, only clinical work, or both. And I decided that I would do both.”

How a braggart lawyer changed his career trajectory

After earning his medical degree from Queen’s University in 1960, Roger headed to Saskatchewan where he did a rotating internship at the University Hospital in Saskatoon. He wanted to get some experience in Neurology and had the possibility of being on the Neurology and Neurosurgery services in the fall to help see if that was what he really wanted to do.

His career then took a marked turn.

“I went with my wife Joan to a backyard barbecue hosted by of the head of Neurology in Saskatoon. He had a very pleasant and quite charming daughter, and there was a lawyer there who was sort of putting his moves on the daughter and bragging about how every year he spent two or three months in Europe. That caught my imagination. When we went home, my wife fell asleep right away but I stayed up thinking. I knew I’d like to have a European experience and at the same time find out if I like research. At about 3 a.m., I woke my wife up telling her, ‘we’re moving to Europe!’”

Roger laughed, recalling his wife’s confused and sleep-filled reaction. But when they revisited the topic in the morning, she was supportive. He then wrote to 7 or 8 neuroscience centres that do research in Europe, asking if they would take him on as a researcher. All but one wrote back. Noncommittal, they invited him to visit. Maybe something can be worked out, they said.

Undeterred and focused, Roger went across the ocean on a grain freighter out of Fort Churchill in search of a laboratory.

His first interview was at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. From there, he visited four other cities in three different countries, finally settling in Marseille, France. There, he met a dynamic supervisor in Professor Henri Gastaut. Professor Gastaut was already world-renown for his work in epilepsy and clinical neurophysiology, and had recently become interested in sleep research.

“And there I landed,” he said.

A career-defining residency in Marseille

By Roger’s estimation, Europe in the mid-1960s was at least five years ahead of North America in their sleep research and sleep medicine. Already, there were about a dozen sleep labs in France alone. European researchers were using 15-16 EEG channels (looking at eye movements, muscle tone, brainwaves, respiration, ECG, etc.) as opposed to the only eight channels being used in North America. An understanding of the whole body in various sleep states was beginning to emerge.

Professor Gastaut was head of the laboratory at the Centre St. Paul (now called the Centre Henri Gastaut) that was conducting clinical sleep studies with epileptic children.

“I arrived and Gastaut said, ‘look, we’ve got all these children and most of them are epileptic and some of them have nocturnal enuresis. What we don’t know is whether they’re having seizures at night with incontinence or whether they’re epileptic children who just have ordinary bedwetting problems. I’ll be gone for two months and I want to know the answer when I get back.’”

It was a call-to-action that Roger took to heart. Rolling up his sleeves, he got to work.

Roger found that most of the epileptic children had normal bedwetting, meaning their anti-epileptic medication didn’t need to be changed. He and his co-workers repeated this research with children with sleepwalking disorders and those with sleep terrors. Later, they studied these same incidents in non-epileptic children and adults. In all cases, episodes began in deep non-REM sleep, never in REM “dreaming” sleep.

“The other thing we found — and this really was one of my bigger contributions — was in incidents of sleepwalking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals in the children or the adults, if you force awaken the subject in the deepest portion of slow wave sleep (which is the deepest sleep that we have) you can often precipitate an attack.”

Why was this significant?

Roger explained, “A lot of people at that time thought sleepwalking and sleep terrors were just exteriorized dreams; but it would be unreasonable to believe that the forced arousals provoking attacks were occurring at the exact moments when the ongoing dreaming or other mentation (unknown to the researcher) was about to cause an attack. Therefore exteriorized behavior of dreaming was no longer a rational explanation for somnambulism or sleep terrors.”

His career-defining paper, “Sleep disorders: disorders of arousal?” was published in the journal Science in 1968. It classified nocturnal enuresis, somnambulism, sleep terrors and confusional arousals as “disorders of arousal,” not of dreaming.

It was a breakthrough finding.

Ever since, sleep disorder classifications group sleepwalking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals as “disorders of arousal.”

Recognition in the sleep community

Roger returned to Canada in 1964, shortly before his seminal paper was published. He worked for four years in the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery at McGill. He also worked in the Department of Clinical Neurophysiology at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, doing clinical work and research (which led to his PhD degree).

By the close of the 1960s, he had relocated to Ottawa where he extended his reputation as a prolific researcher and scholar on

  • sleep and sleep deprivation (including sleep in unusual environments)
  • sleep disorders (narcolepsy-cataplexy, movement disorders in sleep, etc.),
  • performance decreases and evoked potential measures of sleepiness,
  • chronobiology (wake/sleep rhythms) and
  • epilepsy (he co-authored the book, Epileptic Seizures, with Professor Gastaut and played a major role in the writing of the WHO Dictionary of Epilepsy).

Roger also developed the world’s first commercialized automatic sleep analyzer (its prototype is in the Canadian Museum of Science and Technology).

For many years, Roger served as head of Neurology and director of the Department of EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology at the Ottawa General Hospital (now, Ottawa Hospital). From his arrival in 1968 until 2004, he was also the director of the hospital’s Sleep Centre. To his knowledge, this centre was “the first open referral, full-service sleep medicine centre in North America; and one of the first two or three in the world.”

In 1972–1975, Roger became the president of the world sleep research society, the APSS (Associated Professional Sleep Societies). In 1986, he was elected the founding president of the Canadian Sleep Society. He remains very active in the sleep community, regularly attending meetings. In 2003, the society honoured him with the creation of the “Roger Broughton Young Investigator Award.”

Dr. Broughton gives much of the credit for his successful career to the remarkable support staff, graduate students and foreign research fellows who worked with him. He also recognizes the strong and sustained financial support of the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.

Called to the stand: R. v. Parks (on sleep and aggression)


When asleep, are you culpable for your actions? That question made national and international headlines in the late 1980s during the murder trial of Mr. Kenneth Parks. Mr. Parks was accused of murdering his mother-in-law and attempting to murder his father-in-law. He confessed to the crimes, showing up at the police station shortly after they were committed. The catch? He claimed to have been asleep the whole time.


Roger was called to the stand as a medical expert for the defense in this case, whose “not guilty” verdict was appealed but eventually upheld at the Supreme Court level.


He explained, “The issue was if somebody is sleepwalking, are they aware of their actions and do they have control of their actions? The evidence is overwhelmingly no, they don’t. That’s one of the cardinal signs of sleepwalking. When sleepwalkers wake up they don’t know what they’ve been doing. While these cases are extremely rare, to the layperson it was unimaginable that sleepwalking could lead to a killing.”

The evolution of sleep medicine

Once relatively small, the sleep medicine community now numbers in the tens of thousands and is continuing to grow exponentially.

Roger explained, “Sleep was a mystery up until people decided to do objective research on it. I think there is much more acknowledgement, nowadays, of the importance of sleep, the need of obtaining quality sleep, and the importance of sleep medicine.”

Technological advances are also making it possible to map the genetic components of the various sleep states and sleep disorders.

Related: Read “Sleep Disorder Medicine in Canada: gaining traction.”

Roger now considers himself semi-retired (though his CV still notes various emeritus, board and editorial positions). Earlier this fall, he travelled from his home in France to Prague for the World Sleep Congress. He recently finished authoring two chapters for a new textbook on Sleep Medicine. He also agreed to be a guest editor of a special issue of the journal Sleep Medicine that will celebrate the life and contributions of the late Professor Michel Jouvet, who was known for decades as the preeminent of all sleep researchers.

“One of the great things about Sleep Medicine,” Roger summarized, “is that you can almost always help your patients. So, it’s very rewarding to the physician.”


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Sleep Disorder Medicine in Canada: gaining traction

You’re probably familiar with the most common sleep disorders like sleep apnea, narcolepsy and insomnia. But there are actually dozens more. They range from complex sleep apnea, to movement disorders to parasomnias. One thing they all have in common is their harmful effect on the quality of life of those suffering from one of them.

“Inadequate sleep caused by either poor sleep hygiene or a sleep disorder impairs quality of life and reduces survival,” explained John Fleetham, MBBS, FRCPC, a professor at the University of British Columbia and head of the Vancouver Coastal Health Sleep Disorders Programs.

In 2016, Sleep Disorder Medicine was approved by the Royal College as a new Area of Focused Competence. A working group is now finalizing this AFC’s documents and standards. Once approved, universities will be able to apply to offer accredited programs in this area (a number of schools already offer unaccredited fellowships in this area).

Shelly Weiss, MD, FRCPC, co-chair of the working group alongside Dr. Fleetham, is a professor in the University of Toronto’s Faculty of Medicine and a pediatric neurologist at the Hospital for Sick Children.

She explained why this AFC comes at a good time.

In the past, physicians could do their primary specialty and sleep fellowship training in Canada and go to the United States to write an examination by the American Board of Sleep Medicine (ABSM). This would provide them with an official certification/accreditation in this area.

But the rules changed.

“What happens now is if you want to write the ABSM examination, you have to do your residency and fellowship training in the USA. That means that the people who train in Canada don’t currently have a route to being recognized for their expertise in sleep disorder medicine,” she said.

In many countries, Sleep Disorder Medicine has long been recognized as a specialty or subspecialty. Its approval as an AFC is a step in the right direction.

Technological advances and decades’ worth of research have not only advanced our understanding of sleep and sleep medicine, but also led to improved treatments for sleep disorders and greater recognition of sleep’s importance to overall health.

“I’ve seen major evolutions in terms of diagnosis and treatment,” said Dr. Fleetham. “We’ve gone from studying everybody overnight in a hospital to home sleep monitoring and other wearable technologies. In terms of treatment, thirty years ago we used to treat patients with sleep apnea with a tracheostomy and now we treat them with positive airway pressure (PAP) or oral appliances that have dramatically changed care.”

Dr. Weiss added, “There is also much more public knowledge about the importance of sleep. I’ll use the example of the recent publication of ParticipACTION. A year ago they added sleep as an indicator of health in children, as well as publishing the first Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for Canadian youth emphasizing the importance of high levels of physical activity, low levels of sedentary activity and sufficient sleep each day. So I think that kind of recognition of the importance of sleep is a really important shift.”


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Recognition now possible for physicians practising in seven AFC disciplines

Physicians practising in one of several Areas of Focused Competence (AFC) can now apply to have their qualifications recognized by the Royal College.

The Practice Eligibility Route for Areas of Focused Competence (PER-AFC) is newly open for seven AFC disciplines. Portfolios are now being accepted by practitioners in

  1. Adult Hepatology,
  2. Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation,
  3. Aerospace Medicine,
  4. Brachytherapy,
  5. Child Maltreatment Pediatrics,
  6. Clinician Educator, and
  7. Solid Organ Transplantation.

PER-AFC is a pathway to recognize leading practitioners in specialized areas, who up until now have not had a way for their expertise to be formally acknowledged by the Royal College. Applicants must demonstrate their competency, skills and knowledge in their AFC. Success qualifies candidates to receive Diplomate (if already a Fellow) or Diplomate Affiliate status, and to use the designation: DRCPSC.

Learn more about the criteria for PER-AFC on our website.

The announcement of PER-AFC coincides with the launch of eDiploma, a fully online assessment tool that is designed for use by both trainees in accredited AFC programs and by physicians in practice attempting the PER-AFC portfolio assessment.

If you are a trainee in a Royal College-accredited AFC program or a physician practising in a recognized AFC discipline, learn more about how to enroll in eDiploma.

What is an AFC?


An area of focused competence (AFC) is a highly-specialized discipline recognized by the Royal College. AFCs address legitimate societal needs but do not meet the criteria for a specialty, foundation program or subspecialty. AFCs are highly specific, have a narrow scope of practice and are made up of supplemental competencies that enhance the practice of physicians in an existing Royal College discipline.


Learn more about each AFC by visiting our information by discipline resource.


Learn more about how to apply for recognition of an AFC discipline.


Fast facts on AFCs

  • 23 AFC disciplines have been approved by the Royal College to date,
  • 16 have approved national standards,
  • 26 programs have been accredited at universities,
  • 7 PER-AFC pathways have opened.

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Publicize your know-how (to 46,000+ colleagues!)

MOC Tip of the Month

We’re looking for 10 individuals to take on a mission — are you one of them?

The mission, should you choose to accept it: author a MOC Tip of the Month column in 2018.

We’ll support tip writers throughout the writing process. To be considered, all you have to do is fill out our online form (stating your tip idea, name and contact details).

This column is your chance to share your know-how with colleagues across Canada, extend your professional network and support lifelong learning.

Top reasons to share a tip (i.e. what’s in it for you)

  1. Have your tip published in Dialogue, sharing your ideas with over 46,000 specialists and MOC Program participants from across Canada and internationally.
  2. Make our country your network. Past column writers have seen an increase in the audience for their review articles, and gained national profile for their learning tools and suggestions.
  3. Have your tip archived on our Royal College website, making it accessible for a whole new audience (almost 11,000 unique web views to MOC Tips to date!)

Questions: Please email communications@royalcollege.ca


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Participate in our next “Members at work” photoshoot! Learn more

Next time you visit our landing page or read an article in Dialogue, take a closer look at the accompanying photos. A point of pride of our Royal College’s print and web marketing products is that all images of physicians and surgeons are of Fellows in real work settings!

Photoshoots are coordinated on an ongoing basis

From Moncton to Toronto to Saskatoon: many cities have already hosted a “Members at work” photoshoot. This ongoing and national campaign is meant to capture the natural, everyday tasks of our diverse Fellow base.

If you would like to participate in a future photoshoot, please let us know by emailing communications@royalcollege.ca.

In your email, please specify

  • Your first and last names
  • Your specialty
  • The province, hospital and/or clinic in which you work.

If you have colleagues who are Fellows and who would also like to take part, please note their interest. While we try to visit a variety of institutions each year, it is not always feasible. Heightened interest by a group of Fellows at one institution makes a stronger case.

Take part in our next event: January 2018 in Quebec City


Our next photoshoot is scheduled for the week of January 29, 2018, in Quebec City at

  • Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus
  • CHUL et Centre Mère-Enfant Soleil

If you work at either of these hospitals and are interested in taking part, please email us at communications@royalcollege.ca.

All inquiries are welcome; expressions of interest do not commit you to participating.


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Save the date: 2018 Annual Meeting of the Members

The Royal College’s Annual Meeting of the Members is taking place this February:

Date: Thursday, February 22, 2018
Time: 3:30 to 4:30 p.m. (EST)
Location: Royal College headquarters, 774 Echo Drive, Ottawa, Ontario

Three reasons to attend:

  • Exercise your right to be heard and to provide feedback on strategic initiatives.
  • Receive financial information about the organization.
  • Interact with colleagues and learn more about the Royal College’s activities and plans for the year ahead.

Coming soon!

Meeting materials and registration information will be available online by January 25: www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/about/governance/annual-meeting-members-amm-e

For more information, please email governance@royalcollege.ca.


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Changes to our Practice Eligibility Route (PER) program


The Royal College is committed to supporting international physicians as they seek certification in Canada, and to ensuring the highest national standards are met by all.

Practice Eligibility Route (PER) is a pathway to certification for internationally-educated physicians who are already licensed and practising as specialists in Canada, but who are not certified by the Royal College. PER is currently offered across all primary disciplines through the traditional Royal College examination — referred to as PER Route A.

Decision: PER Route B (practice-based assessment) will not be expanded

There is a second PER route for primary disciplines that has been piloted in Psychiatry. Referred to as PER Route B, it is a practice-based assessment that is intended to examine a candidate’s declared scope of practice, as well as generic competencies for that specialty.

Early assessment of the Psychiatry PER Route B pilot revealed that further development and revision is required. As we continue to learn from the Psychiatry pilot, the Royal College will not be developing PER Route B in-practice assessments in other disciplines.

Physicians directly impacted by this change have been individually notified.

If you have any questions, please contact credentials@royalcollege.ca.


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Members in the news

Doctor walking down a hospital hallway

“Scream rock. Forget it, man. I can handle heavy metal, but no screaming. I love opera, but I can’t have it in the OR,” – Jacqueline Auguste, MD, FRCSC (“These are the songs playing in your hospital’s operating room — doctor’s orders,” Toronto Star). The playlists of Fellows, Herbert Wong, MD, FRCSC, and Dean Elterman, MD, FRCSC, are also revealed.

"I think we're so lucky to be able to take a kid like Kenrick and help him get back to where he should be," — Peter Cox, MBChB, FRCPC (“He's spent his whole life in hospital. Now this 5-year-old will finally be able to breathe on his own,” CBC News)

“At one point, we had a horrible reputation in the community. You really needed to be almost on death’s door before you would even want to come to the hospital. But now patients are telling me they feel safer, more accepted, and they know they can receive harm reduction interventions while hospitalized,” – Kathryn Dong, MD, FRCPC (“The hospital on the front lines of Edmonton's opioid crisis,” Edmonton Journal)

"There's no shortage of operations, I'm afraid, that have to be applied to Treacher Collins syndrome," – Christopher Forrest, MD, FRCSC (“People with facial differences see their stories reflected in Wonder,” CBC News)

“We don’t know what underpins it,” – Yasser Khan, MD, FRCSC (“Visual Snow: seeing the world as if it is a static-filled, analog TV,” Toronto Star)

"This will transform the way people think about how we deliver fecal microbiota transplant," – Dina Kao, MD, FRCPC (“'Poop pills' as good as colonoscopy to treat C. difficile: study,” CBC News)

"Storytelling is a practice in Indigenous cultures that sustains communities, validates experiences and expresses experiences of Indigenous peoples, and nurtures relationships and the sharing of knowledge," – Janet McElhaney, MD, FRCPC (“Sudbury health researcher recognized,” Sudbury Star)

“Having this kind of clinical capacity here in Ontario will really change the range of options available to parents who have been given a diagnosis of spina bifida during pregnancy,” – Greg Ryan, MBChB, FRCSC (“In a Canadian first, doctors performed in-utero surgery on baby with spina bifida,” CTV News)

Fellow achievements


 

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In memoriam

Stethoscope

Michel Earl Arseneau, DABMG, FRCSC, died on October 22, 2017, in Quathiaski Cove, B.C., at age 73. Dr. Arseneau was certified by the Royal College in Plastic Surgery in 1977.

Claude Blondin, MD, FRCPC, died on October 30, 2017, in Montreal, Que., at age 78. Dr. Blondin was certified by the Royal College in Internal Medicine in 1969. He was a dedicated rheumatologist – well-loved by patients and colleagues. Read more about Dr. Blondin.

George Eden Boyd, MD, FRCSC, died on November 3, 2017, in Sydney Forks, N.S., at age 78. Dr. Boyd was certified by the Royal College in Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery in 1975. With clinical excellence and kindness in equal measure, he served the Cape Breton community for more than 30 years. Read more about Dr. Boyd.

William Arthur Cochrane (Bill), MD, FRCPC, died on October 6, 2017, in Calgary, Alta., at age 91. Dr. Cochrane was certified by the Royal College Pediatrics in 1956. He was the first dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, and later President of the school. He was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame in 2009. Read more about Dr. Cochrane.

William Richard Currie, MD, FRCPC, died on November 1, 2017, in Summerland, B.C., at age 69. Dr. Currie was certified by the Royal College in General Pathology in 1979. Since 1981, he worked as a forensic pathologist in South Okanogan, where he was well-respected and admired. Read more about Dr. Currie.

(Thomas) Dermot Feore, MBChB, FRCPC, died on October 7, 2017, in Paradise, N.L., at age 88. Dr. Feore was certified by the Royal College in Diagnostic Radiology in 1960. He worked for 54 years before retiring at the age 80. He is remembered for his kindness and humour. Read more about Dr. Feore.

Raymond Deutscher, MD, FRCPC, died on October 30, 2017, in Winnipeg, Man., at age 63. Dr. Deutsher was certified by the Royal College in Anesthesiology in 1984. He worked for close to 35 years at the St. Boniface Hospital. Known as a “superb teacher,” he mentored many residents during his career. Read more about Dr. Deutsher.

Harry Edmund Emson, MBChB, FRCPC, died on October 17, 2017, in Saskatoon, Sask., at age 89. Dr. Emson was certified by the Royal College in General Pathology in 1958. He was formerly a professor and head of the Department of Pathology, College of Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan; and head of Pathology at the University Hospital. A past President of the Canadian Association of Pathologists, he also chaired the Royal College’s Committee in General Pathology. Read more about Dr. Emson.

Peter Giles Fernandez, MD, FRCPC, died on October 25, 2017, in Toronto, Ont., at age 85. Dr. Fernandez was certified by the Royal College in Internal Medicine in 1972. He had a passion for clinical teaching. Over his more than 40 year career, he taught students at both Memorial University and McMaster University. Read more about Dr. Fernandez.

John Gerard Gatien, MD, FRCPC, died on October 8, 2017, in Halifax, N.S., at age 75. Dr. Gatien was certified by the Royal College in Pediatrics in 1974. Remembered as a compassionate and caring doctor, he participated in travelling clinics across Nova Scotia for more than 30 years. Read more about Dr. Gatien.

Asadul Hoque, MBBS, FRCPC, died on September 6, 2017, in St. John’s, N.L., at age 80. Dr. Hoque was certified by the Royal College in Diagnostic Radiology in 1968.

Katerina K. Haka-Ikse, MD, FRCPC, died on November 5, 2017, in Toronto, Ont., at age 91. Dr. Haka-Ikse was certified by the Royal College in Pediatrics in 1968. She specialized in child development and spent many years working on the medical faculty at the University of Toronto and at Toronto’s The Hospital for Sick Children. Read more about Dr. Haka-Ikse.

Claude Léger, MD, FRCPC, died on October 25, 2017, in L’Ile-Cadieux, Que., at age 71. Dr. Léger was certified by the Royal College in Diagnostic Radiology in 1974.

Clyde Beverly Manswell, MD, FRCPC, died on October 14, 2017, in Winnipeg, Man., at age 81. Dr. Manswell was certified by the Royal College in Psychiatry in 1978. For over 30 years, he served patients in Winnipeg and taught medical students at the University of Manitoba. In 2010, he published an autobiography: The Pledge. Read more about Dr. Manswell.

Elizabeth P. (Betty) O’Brien, MBChB, FRCPC, died on October 25, 2017, in Toronto, Ont., at age 80. Dr. O’Brien was certified by the Royal College in Psychiatry in 1970. She established a practice in Etobicoke and worked there for many years before retiring at age 79. Read more about Dr. O’Brien.

Stanley Stewart G. Polack, MD, FRCSC, died on October 20, 2017, in Duncan, B.C., at age 72. Dr. Polack was certified by the Royal College in Ophthalmology in 1976. He joined an ophthalmology practice in 1977 and worked for many years serving patients in Duncan. Read more about Dr. Polack.

Keith Castle Quirk, MDCM, FRCPC, died on October 11, 2017, in North Bay, Ont., at age 91. Dr. Quirk was certified by the Royal College in Psychiatry in 1983. After working as a doctor in Owen Sound where he delivered over 100 babies, he changed his focus to Psychiatry and worked in Halifax then North Bay. Read more about Dr. Quirk.

Catherine (Cathi) M. Ruddy, MD, FRCPC, died on October 26, 2017, in Ottawa, Ont., at age 63. Dr. Ruddy was certified by the Royal College in Dermatology in 1984. Remembered for her compassion, professionalism and empathy, she is dearly missed by both her patients and family. Read more about Dr. Ruddy.

Peter Siemens, MD, FRCPC, died on October 21, 2017, in Saskatoon, Sask., at age 90. Dr. Siemens was certified by the Royal College in Neurology in 1974. Until 2002, he worked as a neurologist in private practice and saw patients at St. Paul’s and Royal University Hospital. Read more about Dr. Siemens.

Konstantinos (Costas) Tirovolas, MD, FRCPC, died on October 29, 2017, in Mississauga, Ont., at age 68. Dr. Tirovolas was certified by the Royal College in Psychiatry in 1982. He is remembered as a caring and compassionate child psychiatrist. Read more about Dr. Tirovolas.

John Francis Vallely, MD, FRCSC, died on October 14, 2017, in London, Ont., at age 70. Dr. Vallely was certified by the Royal College in Urology in 1977. After a long and devoted career as an urologist, he retired in 2008. He is remembered for his deep and genuine kindness. Read more about Dr. Vallely.

 


 

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