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Mercy Ships: where surgeons pay for the privilege of service

It had been almost 48 hours of nonstop travel from Montreal to reach Madagascar. Missed flight? Lost luggage? An experienced traveller, pediatric surgeon Dr. Sherif Emil, FRCSC, was nevertheless exhausted and unsure of what to expect when he finally arrived at the Africa Mercy, his home for the next two weeks.

A floating hospital, it intrigued him. That interest had sustained him throughout the long journey. Now, he wondered, would his work there have the lasting impact he hoped for, or suffer from the same challenges as other short-term medical volunteer trips?

His question was quickly answered.

“The moment I stepped on the ship, I felt that I was part of a very special environment. Everybody is really glad to be there; it’s a true community. That is the first impression you get before you even see a single patient. It’s very uplifting.”

Follow Sherif’s dispatches from the Africa Mercy. Find out how!

10 facts about Mercy Ships: a “unique model of global health”

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A ship with a mission to serve patients

Follow dispatches from the Africa Mercy

Mercy Ships utilizes the coastline of Africa to access some of the world’s poorest patients. Docking in one port for 10 months at a time, the ship’s team provides life-changing surgery, post-operative care and engages in local capacity-building efforts. It’s what Sherif calls a “unique model of global health.”

He explained, “I’ve operated in Zambia and Tanzania, Kenya and Rwanda. You have the surgical skills, and you can sometimes get around a lack of equipment but it’s the post-op care that has always been our dilemma. We can do these cases but then there’s no neonatal ventilator or antibiotics are out or you can’t get a lab test done, so you get suboptimal results. That’s very different on the Africa Mercy.”

Aboard the ship, patients have access to state-of-the-art equipment, experienced surgeons and excellent nursing care, both pre- and post-surgery. A lot of preparation goes into selecting patients. Even before he leaves for a mission (he’s now on his third) Sherif is involved in reviewing cases, looking at photos and planning his surgical tactics. This provides him with familiarity for his patients, even before he meets them. Once on board, he will do about 4-5 operations a day.

“The ship has a very responsible way of going about things. They target things they have prepared for and that they know can be done safely with the resources that are available. They will not engage in surgical adventures. That is one thing I really appreciate,” he said.

Sherif normally operates on a variety of pediatric surgical problems, more often than not presenting at late stages. Large soft tissue tumours and congenital tumors, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma, can be the most challenging. Similar to his practice in Montreal, repair of abdominal wall hernias are the most common operations. On the ship, however, these operations can be quite complex due to chronic incarceration.

“In Canada, if a child came in with an incarcerated hernia and there was fear of bowel loss, they would go into surgery quite quickly. But patients in Africa can die of a strangulated hernia. It’s considered a lethal condition because often they won’t get treatment in time and their bowel will die and it will kill them.”

Paulinah vs. the monster

They said look at this baby. See if this is something you’d be willing to do. And I clicked and opened the file and I literally stepped back.

Five-month old Paulinah had a sacrococcygeal teratoma. The fact that she was alive and that her mother had survived childbirth astounded Dr. Emil. He operated on Paulinah during his first Mercy Ships mission to Madagascar in 2016 – the first time this type of surgery took place on the ship.

“If I were to have gone all the way to Madagascar just to look after her, it would’ve been enough. She was really a living miracle.”

A ship with a mission to build local capacity

“The Africa Mercy ship is really invested in capacity-building,” Sherif explained. “One of the needs assessments that the advance ground team will do is to consider where they can have a local impact. For example, is there a hospital that can be refurbished? Is there an operating room that can be remodelled? These are some of the projects they leave on land. Then they have CPR classes and WHO checklist classes for safe surgery, and training on how to sterilize medical equipment and proper sterilization techniques… there’s almost as much work done off the ship as done on the ship.”

Mercy Ships also brings in local surgeons to help operate and hires local people to assist with other work while they are docked.

“I was really moved on my first mission when they came to me, as I was preparing to head back to Canada, and asked if I would like to contribute to a special fund for the Malagasy employees. I was amazed that they were thinking ahead about what will happen to those people working with us after we leave and funding efforts to support them.”

This month, Sherif will leave for his next mission with Mercy Ships. For the second time, he will be taking a surgical resident with him. He’s excited to expose his resident to this surgical experience and to the dynamic of a team all oriented around a common mission.

“That’s really the spirit of Mercy Ships. People feel very privileged to be there and to contribute in any role. As Don Stephens, Mercy Ships founder says, ‘people pay for the privilege of service.’”

Sherif Emil, MD, FRCSC, is a professor of Pediatric Surgery at McGill University. He is the drector of the Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery at the Montreal Children's Hospital. He is also associate chair for Education in the Department of Pediatric Surgery at McGill. He sits on the board of Mercy Ships Canada.

Follow dispatches from the Africa Mercy

Sherif has embarked on his third mission with Mercy Ships, running from March 11-31, 2018, in Cameroon. Dr. Étienne St-Louis, one of his residents, will be joining him for the last 10 days of this mission.

Follow the Royal College on Facebook to read their live dispatches from the ship!

Follow dispatches from the Africa Mercy

10 facts about Mercy Ships: a “unique model of global health”

  1. Mercy Ships is the vision of founder Don Stephens, who wanted to provide medical care to the world’s poorest by way of a “floating hospital.” It was founded in 1978.
  2. There is one ship (Africa Mercy) that travels the Western coast of Africa. Work on a second ship, the Global Mercy (working title), is underway. It is expected to be complete in 2019 and to travel the Eastern coast of the continent.
  3. The Africa Mercy spends 10 months docked in one harbour before moving on. Mercy Ships tries to revisit the same countries every 3-4 years, enabling staff on board to provide follow-up care or second-stage surgeries for patients they’ve been tracking.
  4. During the Ebola crisis, the Africa Mercy docked in Madagascar for two years.
  5. Services for patients are free and paid for through donations and fundraising. Staff on the ship pay for their own room and board. They come from all over the world.
  6. Missions range from a few weeks to several months or even years. Surgeons generally stay 2-4 weeks at a time, though some will stay for 1-2 months; the chief medical officer has been on the ship for close to 30 years!
  7. Africa Mercy has been in Cameroon since August 2017; the ship’s next stop is Guinea. A forward-operating team is already there, doing a detailed needs-assessment to determine what their visit to Guinea will focus on and where to do their patient screening.
  8. A large outreach effort is deployed to find patients whom staff can reasonably assist; for example, they decline patients who come in with kidney stones or certain types of cancer that cannot be treated on the ship. Some onsite screening will also occur.
  9. Patients who pass the screening are brought in to the port city where they will stay in what’s called a “Hope Center” - a residential centre that is built in every city that the ship docks in. This centre is where patients stay before and after surgery.
  10. Mercy Ships stresses the importance of working with local surgeons and reaching out to the community. The team has many capacity-building efforts, including health infrastructure projects, and training and workshops. They also hire a lot of locals.
Follow dispatches from the Africa Mercy

Learn more on the Mercy Ships website.

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MOC Tip of the Month
By Matt Kurrek, MD, FRCPC

Tips on giving feedback

MOC Tip of the Month

Matt Kurrek Dr. Matt Kurrek

Have you ever felt nervous before giving feedback or worried about how a colleague might react to it?

Giving feedback is often challenging, as I’ve often experienced through my role as a peer assessor for the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO), Ontario’s medical regulatory authority. I understand that it can feel a bit strange to be formally assessed by a peer, especially initially. That’s why I take on this role with the sincere intention to provide objective feedback that helps improve performance and I engage in continuous learning to make sure this objective intention is reflected in my practice.

Below are four ways that have helped my approach to giving feedback over the years. These tips can be applied to all types of contexts and situations, from an annual performance review to a hallway chat with a team member:

  1. Invest in skills development: While feedback is generally well received, some individuals can react negatively, especially when faced with feedback that is perceived as critical. In such situations, communication skills are the biggest asset. What helped me was enrolling in a number of physician leadership courses through the Canadian Medical Association (CMA). I would encourage anyone wanting to further develop his/her feedback skills to take a formal course on influencing, communication or conflict management.
  2. Practise, practise, practise: Courses have helped me better understand the knowledge and theory of effective communication, but I also need to find opportunities to practise what I have learned. I try to do this (even informally) with the people I work with or with people I encounter in my work settings, including peers, nurses and residents. Whenever possible, I pass out anonymous evaluation forms to get feedback about my own skills, which I regularly review. I use this feedback to make personal goals and to benchmark improvements. One of the most important things I have learned is that body language and the way one approaches people are immensely important, especially on initial contact: one never gets a second chance to leave a first impression!
  3. Harness the power of simulation: I’m a very strong proponent of simulation, which is another way to practise effective communication and to troubleshoot the challenges associated with it. We once ran a simulation course for residents and invited an actor to play the family member of a patient who died during a low-risk ambulatory surgery. We filmed the residents as they broke the news to the family member, and then did a debriefing of their communications skills. The actor gave feedback too, sharing her assessment of their approach. She indicated moments when she felt the residents came across as empathetic (“when you leaned forward, that was very comforting to me”) and when they didn’t (“when you looked the other way, that didn’t help me”). This use of simulation is a very powerful learning tool not only for our residents, but also for me. I cannot overstate how much I have learned from my involvement in these courses.
  4. Organize feedback using the CanMEDS Framework: Over the years, I have started to frame my feedback using the CanMEDS Roles. I find this helpful, since many health care professionals who trained in Canada are familiar with the format. I also like to receive feedback in this way. For example, in the evaluation forms I pass out after presentations, I ask for feedback on how I did as a Scholar (did I know my material?) and how I did as a Collaborator (was I a good listener?) This gives me important guidance using a structured rubric.

I hope you find these tips helpful. Giving (and receiving) feedback is as much a personal as a professional skill — and there is never any shortage of opportunities to practise and to learn! Good luck on your own feedback journey and please get in touch if you’d like to chat.

Did you know? You can claim MOC credits as you practise feedback skills

Taking a formal course =
25 credits per course (Section 2: Formal courses)

Giving feedback through peer review =
15 credits per year (Section 2: Peer review)

Receiving and reflecting on feedback on your skills as a communicator=
3 credits per hour (Section 3: Practice assessments)

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Meet our longest-serving Royal College volunteers (a combined 120 years of volunteerism!)

Drs. William (Bill) Coke, Richard Warrington, Louise Samson, and M. Ian Bowmer have all volunteered their time on behalf of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada for more than 30 years each!

Bill works in Mississauga, Richard in Winnipeg, Louise in Montreal and Ian in Ottawa.

Bill, Richard and Ian were all certified in Internal Medicine, while Louise was certified in Diagnostic Radiology. Richard was also certified in Clinical Immunology and Allergy.

Fond memories from volunteering

We asked these special volunteers to tell us about a time they had while volunteering for the Royal College when they felt that their contribution had made a tangible impact.

Bill Coke

"As an Internal Medicine (IM) program director in the late 1980s, I had a chance to work with the IM Specialty Committee to help develop IM Specialty Training Requirements and related documents; as a member of the IM Specialty Committee over the past four years, I have had a chance to work with the Canadian Association of IM Program Directors and help revise them into a competency-based framework. Quite a journey."

Louise Samson

"Back in 1989, our specialty was one of the first to use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE), a brand new format for certification exams. We were the only ones to use OSCE and it gave us an opportunity to play a leadership role. The format and underlying principles are still in use nowadays."

Richard Warrington

"During an oral examination, a candidate became ill. There were apparently no regulations as to what to do, so we sent the candidate to Emergency to be assessed. When the candidate was considered recovered by the ER physician, with the candidate's permission, we continued the examination successfully."

Ian Bowmer

"As a member and chair of the Accreditation Committee I always felt that we were practising continuous improvement of the postgraduate system."

Describe your experience volunteering

Our volunteers have experienced a range of emotions connected to their work for the Royal College these past 30 years. We asked them to use a few words to describe their overall experience.

Why give back?

Doctors are already so busy. We asked our long-serving volunteers why they feel it is important to give back to the medical profession through their work with the Royal College.

  • Bill Coke: As a profession (self-regulating or not) we have an obligation to establish and maintain the highest possible standards of performance. Education is essential to achieve this goal.
  • Louise Samson: The Royal College offers volunteers training opportunities in medical education, to create and collaborate on innovative projects, networking and especially leadership — opportunities that are sometimes less readily available in our own communities.
  • Richard Warrington: It is important to the college, to the medical profession, to the trainees and to the public.
  • Ian Bowmer: It has always been a personal learning journey to participate in the various aspects of the college. I always felt that I learned much more than I gave.

Drs. Coke, Samson, Warrington and Bowmer were recently honoured for their long (and continued!) service to the Royal College. We could not fulfil our mandate without volunteers like them. Learn more about our volunteers »

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Royal College Council: Highlights from the Feb. 2018 meeting

MOC Tip of the Month

To keep you up-to-date on the work of Council, we’re pleased to share with you some highlights from the February 22-23, 2018, Council meeting and the Annual Meeting of the Members (AMM) that immediately followed.

Appointment of new Councillors

Two Fellows were appointed to fill mid-term vacancies on Council:

  • Paul Dagg, MD, FRCPC, and
  • Marcia Clark, MD, FRCSC.

Dr. Dagg was appointed for one year to fill the mid-term vacancy in Region 1, Division of Medicine. He will eligible for election to Council by the members in 2019 for a four-year term. Dr. Clark was appointed for three years to fill the mid-term vacancy in Region 1, Division of Surgery. She will be eligible for election to Council by the members in 2021 for a four-year term. Link to Council member bios »

Approval of the penultimate version of the new strategic plan

The penultimate version of the new 2018-2020 strategic plan was presented to and approved by Council. Council provided feedback to ensure clarity of intent in the language of the plan, and also advised management to ensure the initiatives that will be proposed to deliver on the Royal College’s strategy are focused and few in number to maximize effect and available resources.

Feedback provided by Council will be incorporated into a final version of the plan that will be presented to Council for approval in June 2018.

Competence by Design discussion with members of the PGME community

Several residents, competency-based medical education (CBME) leads and program directors from across Canada were invited to share their experiences with the Competence by Design (CBD) initiative with Council during a panel-style discussion. As some of the early adopters of CBD, they were able to provide firsthand knowledge of progress and challenges, and approaches that have worked well.

Panelists credited a smooth roll-out of CBD in their local training environments to

  • faculty participation in the national workshops to develop discipline specific entrustable professional activities (EPAs);
  • use of innovation to help manage resource constraints; and
  • the introduction of CBD elements, when possible, before CBD was officially launched in their discipline.

With regards to the resident ePortfolio, it was reported that some faculty have moved more easily than others to the digital environment; these groups are eagerly anticipating additional releases of the ePortfolio to access analytics and reporting features. The panelists shared that members of the postgraduate medical education (PGME) community should be encouraged to access the “power” of the national CBD leadership team to help problem solve various elements of CBD. In collaboration with our stakeholder communities, the CBD leadership team will continue to respond iteratively to resolve issues for an ongoing smooth and efficient rollout for coming cohorts of disciplines transitioning to CBD.

A more detailed report on the panel discussion with Council will be included in the next issue of CBD Community Touchpoint.

Establishment of new Council task forces

Council agreed to strike two new task forces that will report to Council and augment Council’s engagement in two key strategic issues.

  • Richard Reznick, MD, FRCSC, Royal College Council member and dean, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen’s University, will chair a task force that will examine the disruptive role of technology on medical education and health care.
  • Kevin Imrie, MD, FRCPC, Royal College Past-President, will chair a task force that will examine the periodic reaffirmation of ongoing professional competence.

Both task forces will soon be initiated and will report back to Council in June 2019.

Financial results and budgets

Council was briefed on the quarterly financial results for the nine-month period ending December 31, 2017. Council reviewed and approved the proposed annual operating and capital budgets for the Royal College for the year ending March 31, 2019, as well as the proposed budget for the Royal College pension plan. For fiscal 2019, the annual operating budget is showing an excess of expenses over revenue (deficit) in the amount of $3.5 million. Council supported the use of internally restricted net asset balances, which were built to fund strategic priority initiatives and other expenditures to address the projected deficit for the financial year 2018-2019. Council will receive further financial forecasts for its consideration at its June 2018 meeting.

Annual Meeting of the Members

Key decisions made at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Members (AMM) on February 22 included

  • the approval of the $930 annual membership fee for the April 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019, financial year; and
  • approval of new Royal College Bylaw No. 20, which corrected for a compliance issue with the number of appointed members on Council.

Under Bylaw No. 20, public members, Fellows-at-large and the resident member of Council, who were all previously appointed by Council, will now be elected to Council by the members at the AMM.

Fellows who attended also got an advanced look at the 2017 Annual Review, which will be launched later in March.

The materials for the AMM are still accessible on the Royal College website. The minutes of the meeting will follow soon.

The next Royal College Council meeting will take place from June 21-22, 2018.

Questions relating to Council activities can be directed to

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We reveal our latest grant recipients for research in CBME

After a highly competitive adjudication process, we are pleased to announce six researchers who have been selected following our 2017 Royal College Strategic Request for Proposals. These individuals will conduct mission-aligned research projects that focus on themes that will advance the future of research and evaluation in competency-based medical education (CBME).

Discover our grant recipients & their projects

Tavis Apramian, MA, MSc, PhD

Exploring the influence of surgical variation on competence judgments in postgraduate surgical education

Dr. Apramian’s goals are to develop teaching tools that can help both surgeons and residents adapt to the complexity of procedural variations, and continuously refine how workplace-based assessment functions to capture competence and entrustment in real time. Read more…

Zia Bismilla, MD, MEd, FAAP, FRCPC

Assessment of physician handover in the era of competency-based medical education

Recognizing the relationship between competence and the quality and safety of patient care, Dr. Bismilla aims to improve handover skills for residents and resultant patient care for Canadian children. Read more…

Mitchell G. Goldenberg, MBBS

Surgical education - Setting performance-based standards in robotic surgery

Dr. Goldenberg’s team devised a method for setting standards in technical competency that aims to minimize variation in oncological, functional and patient-centred outcomes. This study will provide important supporting evidence toward this standard setting method by assessing the technical skill of trainees and faculty performing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. Read more…

Stefanie Sebok-Syer, PhD

Assessing residents’ independent and interdependent clinical performance using electronic health records

Dr. Sebok-Syer will investigate how data collected in the electronic health record might be meaningfully and appropriately used to assess residents’ independent and interdependent clinical performance. Read more…

Matthew Sibbald, MD, MHPE, PhD, FRCPC

Exploring “translational activities” in developing assessment programs for competency based medical education

Dr. Sibbald will seek to understand how entrustable professional activities, milestones and competencies are translated into building assessment tools and programs, as translational activities tend to differ among residency programs. Read more…

Ranil Sonnadara, PhD

Collective/group decision making process: How do competence committees make decisions?

Dr. Sonnadara’s team will explore the role that context plays in competence committee decision-making processes through interviews, naturalistic observation and an experimental study. Findings will aim to maximize the effectiveness of competence committees, including their composition, access to, and interpretation of data to generate sound judgments of residents’ performance. Read more…

We welcome your questions or comments. Please email

About our strategic research grants

Each year, the Royal College invests in Fellows and researchers through our competitive grant programs. These programs support the development of education-focused research and the professional training of medical educators in Canada. This year, our strategic request for proposals focused on research and evaluation priority areas within competency-based medical education.

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Visiting Scholars Program: is this the opportunity for you?

If you’re working on a research project and are looking for input, insights or support from Royal College staff members to advance it, we have an opportunity for you: our new Visiting Scholars Program.

As a Royal College Visiting Scholar, you will gain access to Royal College staff, researchers and leadership through an onsite visit to our offices in Ottawa, Canada. While here, you can engage in discussions about your work and related Royal College programs and services, to enhance your medical education or health policy research project.

Apply to be a Royal College Visiting Scholar.

A quick checklist to determine if you are eligible

You are a Fellow, graduate student or a professor on sabbatical.

You are pursuing research in medical education or related health policy.

Your project will benefit from the useful knowledge and information collected from Royal College staff, program developers and others onsite.

You are self-initiated and capable of being self-funded.

You have at least three months lead time before your proposed visit.

Our Visiting Scholars Program aims to build and foster a network of research experts throughout Canada and the Royal College. Together, this network will be able to better identify opportunities that will help propel and advance medical education research.

Have questions?

Visit our Visiting Scholars webpage for more information or write to

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Connected Medicine: 15-month quality improvement collaborative

Did you know Canadians face some of the longest waits to see a specialist?

That’s why the Royal College has joined the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement and other partners to help spread two remote consult solutions that have proven to be effective.

Eleven teams were selected from across Canada to receive funding, coaching, educational materials and tools to support the design, implementation and evaluation of a remote consult service in their jurisdiction.

Meet the teams and learn more about this new collaborative.

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Members in the news

“The idea is… what if we could give you pre-fabricated cartilage grafts before you went into the operating room that were specifically designed for that patient’s defect?” Khalid Ansari, MD, FRCSC (“University of Alberta study looks to improve nasal surgery with engineered cartilage,” Calgary Herald).

“Every day, we met early in the morning to just review who from our clients have died,” Rolando Barrios, MD, FRCPC (“B.C. doctors look to fight opioids with lessons learned from AIDS crisis,” Global News).

"The unprecedented and careless overuse of antibiotics—not only in humans but also in food-producing and in crop production—has contributed to the emergence of these deadly antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria around the world.” John Conly, MD, FRCPC (“A tsunami of antibiotic resistance is coming—and Canada must take charge,” Maclean’s).

“Having people injecting in a safer and contained environment is good for keeping people alive, it’s good for neighbourhoods, there’s less needle waste on the streets, less public injecting behaviours, it’s a really good thing for everyone,” Chris Mackie, MD, FRCPC (“London’s safe-injection site helping the community: medical health officer,” Global News).

"In the last several years, we've been able to access some products which are in pill form, very short duration, meaning three months of one pill once per day, almost no side-effects, almost 100 per cent cure rates," Paul Marotta, MD, FRCPC (“Provincial funding for hepatitis C drugs a game changer, health professionals say,” CBC News).

“Over a lifetime, more than one-third of persons with rheumatoid arthritis are likely to experience depression, and 45% are likely to experience an anxiety disorder,” Ruth Ann Marrie, MD, PhD, FRCPC (“Depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder more prevalent among patients with RA,” Healio).

"With flu it's kind of like a steeplechase where we have a fairly quick ramp up of activity, a few weeks of intense activity and then it comes back down," Michelle Murti, MD, FRCPC (“Flu activity slowly decreasing, Public Health Agency of Canada reports,” CBC News).

"Depression often starts early in life, so our efforts should match that. Providing education and advice on recognizing depression and anxiety, and de-stigmatizing it, begins in the schools," Sagar Parikh, MD, FRCPC (“Student-led depression awareness program boosts teens' understanding and help-seeking,” Medical Express).

"It can spread anywhere in the body and can cause things from pneumonia to skin, soft tissue and bone infections, but the complication we fear the most is when it gets to the lining of the brain and can cause … meningitis," Guillaume Poliquin, MD, FRCPC (“New vaccine targets pneumonia, blood poisoning, meningitis among children in Canada's North,” CBC News | Manitoba).

"It's a very resistant cancer to chemotherapy treatments. It often presents as a very advanced disease because of where the pancreas is located - right at the back of the abdomen. If there's a small cancer growing there you wouldn't notice any symptoms," Daniel Renouf, MD, FRCPC (“Canadian pancreatic cancer study aims to provide personalized treatment and hope,” CTV News).

“Valuing diversity should mean promoting it in textbooks,” Roger Wong, MD, FRCPC (“Lack of racial diversity in medical textbooks could mean inequity in care, study suggests,” CBC News).

Honours and recognition

Regina Husa, MD, FRCPC, has been named assistant dean, Accreditation, Postgraduate Medical Education, at McGill University.

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In memoriam


Lawrence Lionel Ballon, MD, FRCPC, died on January 18, 2018, in Toronto, Ont., at age 77. Dr. Ballon was certified by the Royal College in Psychiatry in 1971. Read more about Dr. Ballon.

Ross Allan Dobson, MD, FRCSC, died on January 30, 2018, in Newmarket, Ont., at age 92. Dr. Dobson was certified by the Royal College in General Surgery in 1954. Read more about Dr. Dobson.

Thomas Enta, MD, FRCPC, died on January 5, 2018, in Calgary, Alta., at age 85. Dr. Enta was certified by the Royal College in Dermatology in 1966. Read more about Dr. Enta.

Mathias Gysler, MD, FRCSC, died on January 25, 2018, in Oakville, Ont., at age 69. Dr. Gysler was certified by the Royal College in Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1979. Read more about Dr. Gysler.

Frank Murray Hall, MD, FRCPC, died on January 8, 2018, in Aurora, Ont., at age 91. Dr. Hall was certified by the Royal College in Internal Medicine in 1954. Read more about Dr. Hall.

Guy Lafontaine, MD, FRCPC, died on February 1, 2018, in Trois-Rivières, Que., at age 79. Dr. Lafontaine was certified by the Royal College in Diagnostic Radiology in 1972. Read more about Dr. Lafontaine.

Christopher R. Shackleton, MD, FRCPC, FRCSC, died on January 6, 2018, in Vancouver, B.C., at age 65. Dr. Shackleton was certified by the Royal College in Internal Medicine (1984), Nephrology (1985) and General Surgery (1987). Read more about Dr. Shackleton.

Albert Joseph Shaw, MDCM, FRCPC, died on January 16, 2018, in Halifax, N.S., at age 94. Dr. Shaw was certified by the Royal College in Diagnostic Radiology in 1959. Read more about Dr. Shaw.

William Draper Wilkey, MD, FRCPC, died on February 7, 2018, in London, Ont., at age 93. Dr. Wilkey was certified by the Royal College in Internal Medicine in 1953. Read more about Dr. Wilkey.


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